Главная страница
Навигация по странице:

  • Виды энергетических ресурсов. Стр 3, 10-11, 15-17, 19-21 Волгоград 2009 UNIT 1. WIND AND SOLAR ENERGY TO REPLACE OIL AND GAS

  • Exercise 1. Read and remember the words and word combinations to help you with the text.

  • Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

  • Exercise 3. Translate from Russian into English.

  • Exercise 4. Read and translate compounds and word combinations from the text.

  • UNIT 2. STATE AID ESSENTIAL

  • Exercise 4. Match A with В (work in pairs).

  • Exercise 5. Retell the text «State aid essential» (make up a short resume of the text). UNIT 3. ENERGY FOR THE FUTURE By term F. Dailite

  • Радова Л. А. Виды энерг. ресурсов. Федеральное агентство по образованию Волгоградский государственный архитектурностроительный университет Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации Виды энергетических ресурсов. Стр 3, 1011, 1517, 1921 Волгоград 2009


    Скачать 5.49 Mb.
    НазваниеФедеральное агентство по образованию Волгоградский государственный архитектурностроительный университет Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации Виды энергетических ресурсов. Стр 3, 1011, 1517, 1921 Волгоград 2009
    АнкорРадова Л. А. Виды энерг. ресурсов.docx
    Дата08.03.2018
    Размер5.49 Mb.
    Формат файлаdocx
    Имя файлаРадова Л. А. Виды энерг. ресурсов.docx
    ТипДокументы
    #13744
    страница1 из 4
      1   2   3   4


    Федеральное агентство по образованию Волгоградский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет Кафедра лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации

    Виды энергетических ресурсов.

    Стр 3, 10-11, 15-17, 19-21

    Волгоград 2009

    UNIT 1. WIND AND SOLAR ENERGY TO REPLACE OIL AND GAS?

    Because Russia’s oil and gas reserves will have been depleted in the not too distant future, we must begin to develop alternative sources of energy now.

    According to estimates by analysts Russia’s explored oil reserves will last 30 to 40 years, its gas and coal reserves, 100 years. Meanwhile, countries less lucky with natural fuel resources have launched an effort to develop alternative sources of energy.

    Last year, Russia produced 470 million tons of oil, thereby exceeding the output ceiling set in its energy strategy for the period to 2010. According to estimates by scientists, it could well do with 370 million tons. Excessive oil production in Russia is a result of ruthless exploitation of its underground resources. The production of «black gold» in our country is practically uncontrolled.

    Gennady Shmal, president of the Union of Russian oil and Gas Producers said: Twenty years ago, if anyone violated the targets of the deposit development project, he would be fired or even put on trial. The Natural Resources Ministry' submitted to the government a draft strategy to explore and develop Russia’s continental shelf in the period to 2020. The NRM, headed by Yury Trutnev, has calculated that recoverable oil reserves on the shelf 13.5 billion tons: gas reserves, 73 trillion cubic meters. To exploit these reserves will cost the state around 33 billion rubles, and the overall payback on the investment will be 3,2 trillion rubles. What will happen next?

    Exercise 1. Read and remember the words and word combinations to help you with the text.

    reserves — запасы, ресурсы

    to launch an effort — приложить усилие

    output ceiling set — максимальный выпуск продукции

    thereby — таким образом, в связи с этим

    ruthless — безжалостный, жестокий

    to violate the target — нарушить план

    to fire — уволить

    draft — план, проект

    recoverable — восстанавливаемый

    overall payback — полная окупаемость

    excessive — чрезмерный, излишний

    to put on trial — отдать под суд

    uncontrolled — бесконтрольный, неконтролируемый

    to submit — представлять на рассмотрение, представлять

    to explore — исследовать

    to exploit — использовать

    to replace — заменять, замещать

    to calculate — подсчитать

    Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

    1. What will happen in the not too distant future with fossil reserves in Russia?

    2. Why must we begin to develop alternative sources of energy now?

    3. How long will Russia's oil, gas and coal reserves last?

    4. What countries have begun to develop alternative sources of energy'?

    5. Could Russia well do with 370 million tons of oil?

    6. What is the reason of excessive oil production in Russia?

    7. What is the NRM?

    8. Is it benefit for Russia to explore and develop continental shelf in the period to 2020? Why not?

    Exercise 3. Translate from Russian into English.

    1. Сегодня мы начинаем развивать альтернативные источники энергии.

    2. В недалеком будущем российские запасы нефти и газа истощатся.

    3. Российские запасы нефти просуществуют 30—40 лет, а газа и угля — 100 лет.

    4. Производство «черного золота» в нашей стране не контролируется.

    5. 20 лет назад за нарушение планов разработки залежей могли оштрафовать и даже посадить в тюрьму.


    Exercise 4. Read and translate compounds and word combinations from the text.

    Oil and gas reserves; not too distant future; to develop alternative sources; according to estimates; meanwhile; to launch an effort; output ceiling set; excessive oil production; Natural Resources Ministry; to submit a draft strategy; to explore and develop Russia’s; continental shelf; recoverable oil reserves; cubic meter; overall payback; investment.

    UNIT 2. STATE AID ESSENTIAL

    After 2020, we will be left with the eternal sun, oceans and winds — renewable sources of energy. They have been the subject of study in Russia for some 100 years, but these studies have produced no practical results. When energy supplies became centralized, micro and mini hydro-power stations — which used the flows of small rivers and at one time saved the remote areas in Russian’s south from dire straits — have all but disappeared. And thermal energy turned out by solar energy collectors is used only in sanatoria in Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories. The sun is not the only ignored source of energy. A nation with abundant oil and gas also fails to utilize the unique northerly winds, which possess tremendous potential as generator of electric power.

    For example, Kola Peninsula’s sole wind energy system, with a capacity of 200 kilowatts, is located near the Lights of Murmansk hotel. Four years ago, local scientists installed it in the city of Murmansk (on funds from Norway) to demonstrate the efficiency and profitability of wind energy systems and the feasibility of their wide-scale use in the Murmansk Region and in the country as a whole. Thus far, however, only the Murmansk hotel appreciates the usefulness of its wind energy system, which generates all the electricity it needs.

    Valery Minin, head of the laboratory for nontraditional renewable sources of energy at the Kola Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences that wind-power engineering can really become relevant in our time. He says: «Fuel is becoming more costly, and energy tariffs area going up all time. The Kola Nuclear Power Plant outlived its service life back in 2004. Therefore, it’s high time we set up wind energy parks, like those in Germany, Denmark and Spain. As for the versality of the winds, the peninsula has 17 hydro-power stations to take care of that».

    That’s the way it should be done — the alternative energy system should complement rather than replace the mainstream energy system», affirms Semyon Vainshtein, department head at the Moscow State University of Engineering Ecology. At present, alternative sources of energy cannot compete with the traditional ones in price. A kilowatt — hour of electricity generated by a wind or solar power system costs $ 600 to $ 1000. That’s too expensive a luxury. In the West, such projects are state — funded. Vainshtein: «As long as oil and gas are cheap in our country, people find it very hard to develop alternative sources of energy. If you have a permanent hot water supply at home, naturally you won’t need a solar collector on your balcony. People’s attitude would be different if there were heat gas meters in every home, with everyone counting howr much to spend on these utilities».

    Exercise 1. Read and remember the words and word combinations to help you with the text.

    dire straits — затруднительное положение sole — единственный, исключительный feasibility — возможность thus far — до сих пор, пока что relevant — уместный versatility — многосторонность to complement — дополнять to compete — конкурировать

    to be the subject of study — быть объектом изучения remote areas — удаленные территории tremendous potential — огромный потенциал on funds from Norway — на средства Норвегии heat gas meters — газовые счетчики too expensive a luxury — непозволительная роскошь nontraditional renewable sources of energy — нетрадиционные источники возобновляемой энергии

    Exercise 2. Answer the questions.

    1. What will happen after 2020?

    2. What other sources of energy do we ignore?

    3. Where is wind energy system located in our country?

    4. Who is the head of the laboratory for nontraditional renewable sources of energy at the KRC?

    5. Why can wind-power engineering really become relevant in our time?

    6. What countries have already set up wind energy parks?

    7. Why cannot alternative sources of energy' compete with the traditional ones?

    8. How much does wind and solar kilowatt-hour cost?

    9. Who is such projects in the West funded?

    10. Why is it hard to develop alternative sources of energy in our country?

    Exercise 3. Translate from Russian into English.

    1. После 2020 г. мы останемся только с солнцем, океанами и ветрами — возобновляемыми источниками энергии. 2. Стране с изобилием нефти и газа не удается использовать уникальные северные ветры. 3. На Кольском полуострове существует единственная энергетическая система ветра мощностью 200 киловатт и находится около отеля «Огни Мурманска». 4. Природное топливо становится дороже и тарифы на энергию все время повышаются. 5. Альтернативная энергетическая система должна дополнять, а не заменять главную энергетическую систему7. 6. В настоящее время альтернативные источники энергии не могут соревноваться с традиционными по цене.

    1. Киловатт-час электричества, выработанный ветром или солнцем, стоит $ 600—1000. 8. На западе такие проекты финансирует государство. 9. Трудно развивать альтернативные источники энергии в России, имея дешевый газ и нефть.



    Exercise 4. Match A with В (work in pairs).



    English

    Russian

    Russian English

    A

    В

    А

    в

    to launch an effort

    подсчитать

    восстанавливаемый

    alternative

    to violate

    дополнять

    безжалостный

    versatility

    to fiie

    представлять на рас

    план, проект

    draft

    to explore

    смотрение

    чрезмерный

    reserves

    to submit

    нарушать

    усилие

    thus far

    to replace

    заменять

    неконтролируемый

    relevant

    to calculate

    приложить усилие

    запасы

    expensive

    to complement

    уволить

    альтернативный

    excessive

    to compete

    использовать

    дорогой

    ruthless

    remote

    удаленный

    до сих пор, пока

    effort




    конкурировать

    уместный

    recoverable







    многосторонность

    uncontrolled

    Exercise 5. Retell the text «State aid essential» (make up a short resume of the text).

    UNIT 3. ENERGY FOR THE FUTURE By term F. Dailite

    Is there really an energy crisis? Or do we depend too much on a single form of energy? During recent generations, the world depended mostly on hydroelectric power. Governments built dams across rivers, forming large lakes and putting thousands of acres of land under water. The water flowing over the dams turned turbines to generate electricity. Today giant power lines carry electricity to distant cities. Some scientists say that these power lines are dangerous because of the electromagnetic fields they produce. More and more people object to hydroelectric power because it seriously changes the balance of nature.

    Thermonuclear power, or nuclear power, comes from the splitting of atoms. It is a widely used and inexpensive form of energy. However, it is possibly the most dangerous because there are health risks from radiation.

    Coal, one type of fossil fuel, is one of the dirtiest kinds of energy used. It heats homes and runs factories. Other fossil fuels that come from the earth are petroleum products: gasoline, which is used for most vehicles, and natural gas, which is used for some vehicles, but mostly for heating and cooking. At the present time, some New York City buses run on natural gas, which is cleaner and cheaper than regular gasoline.

    Alcohol is quite commonly used as fuel in Brazil. It comes from one of Brazil’s main crops, sugar cane, which is easily processed into alcohol. Methane gas, another source of fuel, comes from garbage, but it is not widely used. From under the ground, Iceland gets geothermal energy, which provides most of the country’s heat and hot water. Other sources of energy include the wind and the sun. In Hawaii, for example, the strong winds in some locations turn giant propellers to produce electricity. In many parts of the world the sun fulfills many energy needs. Solar panels heated by the sun produce electricity. Solar energy already provides many homes with heat and hot water.

    What about future sources of energy? Ralph Hansen, a NASA engineer and the author of Sun Power, proposed a plan to use solar powered satellites to capture the power of the sun in space, where the sun shines 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. His plan would provide low-cost, nonpolluting energy' for the entire world. An additional energy source to be developed is fusion energy, the process that powers the sun and the tars.

    Nuclear fusion, or fusion, represents an unlimited source of energy, in fusion, nuclei combine to form bigger nuclei while releasing energy. Not much is known about how to make it usabie, but it seems promising, and millions of dollars of government money will help develop it. Although these sources of energy seem easily available, their high cost is a problem. They are expensive to develop. As a result, they are not as widely used as cheaper forms of fuel.

    Energy is needed to warm us, cool us, light our way, cany us from one place to another, and process our food. If the world population increases as expected, resources for the kinds of energy we use today may be insufficient. We will have to look closer at different energy sources, such as fusion and solar power. W'hen will we decide to spend the money necessary to develop these energy sources? Who w'ill pay for it? These questions will need to be answered before we can meet our growing energy needs.
      1   2   3   4
    написать администратору сайта