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Grammar exercises (общая) дораб. Of the Verb Tenses in Active and Passive Voice


НазваниеOf the Verb Tenses in Active and Passive Voice
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PASSIVE VOICE


Tense group in Passive Voice

Tenses

Present

Past

Future

Future

in-the-Past

to be + Participle II


Simple (Indefinite)

Letters

are

written

every

day

The letter

was

written

yesterday

The letter

will be

written

tomorrow

(He said that)

the letter

would be

written

the next day


Continuous

(Progressive)

The

letter is

being

written

now

The letter

was being

written

at 5 o'clock

yesterday







Perfect

The letter

has been

written

already

The letter

had been

written

by 5 o'clock

yesterday

The letter

will have

been

written

by 5 0 clock

tomorrow

(He said that)

the letter

would have

been written

by 5 o'clock

the next day


Ex. 8.1 Make the following interrogative and negative.

1. All pupils are supplied with textbooks. 2. America was discovered by Columbus. 3. The floor was painted last summer. 4. The shop will be closed at 8 o'clock. 5. The sick man is being operated on. 6. The room is being cleaned now. 7. This metro line was being built at that time. 8. This novel has been translated into Russian. 9. A new business center has been built in our town. 10. The tickets had been sold out by that time.
Ex. 8.2 Put questions to the italicized words.

1. The letter will be answered tomorrow. 2. They were shown many places of interest. 3. Wheat is grown in each of these regions. 4. This town was founded in the 15-th century. 5. A water-power station іs being built on the mountain river. 6. She was told the news when she came. 7. The film is much spoken about. 8. He was asked for his passport. 9. The address was poorly written in ink. 10. The room door was locked on the inside.
Ex. 8.3 Put the verbs in brackets into Present, Past or Future Simple Passive.

l. My question (to answer) yesterday. 2. Hockey (to play) in winter. 3. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn. 4. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London. 5. His new book (to finish) next year. 6. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets. 7. St. Petersburg (to found) in 1703. 8. Bread (to eat) every day. 9. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 10. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. 11. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 12. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday. 13. Many houses (to build) іn our town every year. 14. This work (to do) tomorrow. 15. This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 16. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 17. Many interesting games always (to play) at our PT lessons. 18. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 19. We (to invite) to a concert last Saturday. 20. Lost time never (to find) again. 21. Rome (not to build) in a day.
Ex. 8.4 Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice. Notice the place of preposition.

E.g. We often speak about her. — She is often spoken about.

l. The senior students laughed at the freshman. 2. The group spoke to the headmistress yesterday. 3. The young mothers looked after their babies with great care. 4They sent for Jim and told him to prepare a report on that subject. 5. We thought about our friend all the time. 6.The doctor will operate on him in a week. 7. The teacher sent for the pupil's parents. 8. They looked for the newspaper everywhere. 9. The neighbour asked for the telegram. 10. Everybody listened to the lecturer with great attention.
Ex. 8.5 Translate into English using Present, Past or Future Simple Passive.

1. Ее часто посылают на почту. 2. В прошлом году ее послали в Кембридж. 3. Его пошлют в Гарвард. 4. За ней всегда посылают. 5. За ней послали вчера. 6. За мной пошлют завтра. 7. Их всегда приглашают на день рождения Ани. 8. Летом Колю отвезут на дачу. 9. Об этом фильме много говорили. 10. В музее нам показали много прекрасных картин. 11. Эту книгу очень часто спрашивают.
Ex. 8.6 Put the verbs in brackets into the Passive Voice.

1. Two reports on Hemingway's stories (to make) in our group last month. Both of them were very interesting. 2. He said that Grandmother's letter (to receive) the day before. 3. Two new engineers just (to introduce) to the head of the department. 4. Don't worry, everything will be all right: the children (to take) to the theatre by the teacher and they (to bring) back to school in the evening. 5. I am sure I (to ask) at the lesson tomorrow. 6. They told me that the new student (to speak) much about. 7. The hostess said that one more guest (to expect). 8. The newspaper said that an interesting exhibition (to open) in the Hermitage the next week. 9. This new dictionary (to sell) everywhere now. 10. All the texts (to look) through yesterday and not a single mistake (to find).
Ex. 8.7 Put the verbs in brackets into Active or Passive Voice.

1. Nobody (to see) him yesterday. 2. The telegram (to receive) tomorrow. 3. He (to give) me this book next week. 4. The answer to this question usually (to find) in the encyclopedia. 5. We (to show) the historical monuments of the capital to the delegation. 6. You can (to find) interesting information about the life in the USA in this book. 7. Budapest (to divide) by the Danube into two parts: Buda and Pest. 8. Yuri Dolgoruki (to found) Moscow in 1147. 9 .Moscow University (to found) by Lomonosov. 10.We (to call) Zhukovski the father of Russian aviation.
Ex. 8.8 Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

E.g. Mother waters the flowers in the evening. — The flowers are watered in the evening (by mother).

1. Irene's husband brought her some beautiful shells from the south. 2. The explorers gave the newspaper reporters a long interview. 3. Mr. Wilson will teach you English. 4. The doctor ordered me a month's rest from studying. 5. Tom gave Nick a book for his birthday. 6. Our mother tells us stories every evening. 7. Lydia will show you a new book of pictures. 8. A boy showed her the way. 9. They will send us a box of fruit. 10. Five or six small children followed them. 11. In summer the boys often drive the horses to the fields. 12. Ivan Susanin led the Poles into the thickest part of the forest. 13. The waves carried the boat away. 14. We will do the translation in the evening. 15. They water the flowers regularly. 16. You promised me these books long ago. 17. Bessie's father gave her a complete set of Walter Scott's works. 18. A marble pavilion protects the house. 19. The boys will paint the roof of the house. 20. Tom Sawyer whitewashed the fence. 21. Her daughters gave her three beautiful dishes as a birthday present.
Ex. 8.9 Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

1. You must take the box to the station. 2. You can cross the river on a raft. 3. The workers can finish the building of the house very soon. 4. You must return the books the day after tomorrow. 5. You must do three of these exercises tomorrow. 6. You can find the book you need in any library. 7. We must send these letters at once. 8. You can find such berries everywhere. 9. You must do this work very carefully. 10. The doctor says they must take her to hospital. 11. You can do the work in three days. 12. The students must return all the library books before each summer vacation. 13. Monkeys can climb even the tallest trees.
Ex. 8.10 Translate into English, using Passive Infinitive

1. Руки надо мыть перед каждой едой. 2. Комнаты нужно регулярно проветривать. 3. Кошку надо кормить рыбой. 4. Собаку можно кормить мясом и овощами. 5. Ребенку надо давать фрукты. 6. Книги надо положить в шкаф. 7. Эту картину можно повесить над камином. 8. Как можно перевести это слово? 9. Куда можно поставить чемоданы? 10. Можно кошку оставить во дворе? 11. На что нужно обратить внимание? 12. Нужно записать твой номер телефона. 13. Нужно измерить ваше кровяное давление. 14. Его надо пригласить на мой день рождения. 15. Ей можно предложить новую работу.
Ex. 8.11 Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

1. He stole a lot of money from the shop. 2. By six o'clock they had finished the work. 3. At twelve o'clock the workers were loading the trucks. 4. By three o'clock the workers had loaded the trucks. 5. We send our daughter to rest in the south every year. 6. They will show this film on TV. 7. They are building a new concert hall in our street. 8. I bought potatoes yesterday. 9. We will bring the books tomorrow. 10. They are repairing the clock now. 11. They sell milk in this shop. 12. I have translated the whole text. 13. They broke the window last week. 14. When I came home, they had eaten the sweets. 15. We will do the work in the evening. 16. He wrote this book in the 19th century. 17. They were playing tennis from four till five. 18. They have made a number of important experiments in this laboratory. 19. Livingstone explored Central Africa in the 19th century.20. By the middle of autumn we had planted all the trees. 21. They will stage this play at the beginning of next season. 22. They have forgotten the story. 23. Has anybody explained the rules of the game to you? 24. They haven't brought back my skates.
Ex. 8.12 Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

1. The children have scattered about a lot of things. 2. The girl has put all the books into the bookcase. 3. Snow will cover the fields in winter. 4. They will hand in the homework tomorrow. 5. I don't think we shall finish all the preparations today. 6. She always invites me to her dinner parties. 7. She showed me the dress which her daughter had made. 8. They did not invite her to the party. 9. I did not leave the window open. 10. They did not turn off the light. 11.І have invited some friends to tea. 12. She has given me an English book. 13. Have you written the letter yet? 14. They have told us a lot of interesting things. 15. The students have written the test paper without mistakes. 16. We discussed the matter some days ago. 17. Someone wants you on the phone. 18. She found my book on the windowsill. 19. They have built excellent shelters for tourists in these mountains. 20. Have you given the exercises to all the students? 21. The boy was angry because his mother did not allow him to go to the stadium. 22. Why have you put my books on this table?
Ex. 8.13 Put the following sentences into the Active Voice. Introduce any suitable subjects.

1. The room was cleaned and aired. 2. Have all these books been read? 3. Whom were these letters written by? 4. The letter has just been typed. 5. She showed me the picture which had been painted by her husband. 6. I will not be allowed to go there. 7. He has been told everything, so he knows what to do now. 8. All the questions must be answered. 9. The door has been left open. 10. Betty was met at the station. 11. The girl was not allowed to go to the concert. 12. She said that the new timetable had not yet been hung up on the notice board. 13. The chicken was eaten with appetite. 14. It was so dark, that the houses could not be seen. 15. The light has not yet been turned off. 16. The boy was punished for misbehaving. 17. By three o'clock everything had been prepared. 18. The dictation was written without mistakes. 19. Whom was the poem written by? 20. Her dress was washed and ironed. 21. I was not blamed for the mistakes. 22. The papers had been looked through and corrected by the next lesson. 23. This house was built last year. 24 This article will be translated at the lesson on Tuesday. 25. When will this book be returned to the library?
Ex. 8.14 Translate into English using Passive Voice.

1. Меня представили ее отцу вчера. 2. Когда я вернусь домой, все мои чемоданы будут уже уложены. 3. На какой учебник вы ссылаетесь в вашем докладе? 4. Разве это сочинение было написано до того, как вы делали доклад? 5. Её слушали невнимательно, и все, что она сказала, было вскоре забыто. 6. Об этом эпизоде много говорят в нашем доме. 7. Нас провели в зал и предложили нам хорошие места. 8. Послали за лекарством?- Да, его ищут. 9. Его воспитала сестра. 10. Не беспокойся, ему помогут в работе. 11. В нашем районе строятся три новые школы. 12. Этот мост еще строится. Он строился, когда я его увидел в первый раз. 13. Когда я начал им помогать, статью уже переводили. 15. Когда я приду домой, обед будут готовить. 14. Этот рассказ обсудили на уроке литературы.
Ex. 8.15 Translate into English using Passive Voice.

1. Нам показали очень странную картину. 2. Тебя ищут. Иди домой. 3. Вас всех соберут в зале и расскажут обо всех изменениях в школьной программе. 4. Почему над ним всегда смеются? 5. Нам всем дали билеты на выставку. 6. Лекции этого знаменитого профессора всегда слушают с большим вниманием. 7. Меня ждут? 8. Им задали три трудных вопроса. 9. За директором уже послали. Подождите немного. 10. Всех пригласили в большой зал. 11. Эти письма просмотрены. Их можно отправлять. 12. На станции их встретил гид и отвез в гостиницу. 13. Эти журналы должны быть возвращены в библиотеку на следующей неделе. 14. На наших занятиях много внимания уделяется произношению. 15. Иванову велели объяснить, почему он пропускает занятия. 16. Меня пригласят на ваш вечер? 17. Детей оставили дома одних.
Ex. 8.16 Translate into English using Passive Voice.

1. Где сейчас ваш брат? – Его послали во Францию. 2. О вас только что говорили. 3. Дома над ней посмеялись. 4. "Мне только что приказали ввести пленных", - сказал солдат. 5. Кто написал это письмо? 6. Эти цветы только что сорвали. 7. Тебя вчера просили прийти пораньше? 8. В будущем году его пьеса будет поставлена в этом театре. 9. За этим профессором всегда посылают в трудных ситуациях. 10.Собор Святого Павла строил архитектор Рен. 11. Когда написали это письмо? 12. Куда положили книги? 13. За доктором пошлют завтра. 14. В Санкт-Петербурге строят много домов. 15. Произведения английских и американских писателей издают во всем мире. 16. К тому времени, как он приехал, письмо было уже получено. 17. Наш дом сейчас ремонтируют. 18. Колю как раз спрашивают. 19. Книги уже принесли из библиотеки? 20. Этот кинотеатр был построен до того, как мы приехали сюда. 21. Стихи Роберта Бернса знают во многих странах мира. 22. Когда Чарльз Диккенс был маленьким мальчиком, его отца посадили в долговую тюрьму. 23.Эта опера была написана сто лет назад. 24. Этот роман уже переведен на пять языков. 25. Когда я пришел домой, мама готовила обед.

The Non-finite Forms of the Verb

The Infinitive

1. Forms and Functions of the Infinitive

2. Objective and Subjective Infinitive Constructions

3. Infinitive Construction with the preposition "for"


Forms of Infinitive




Active

Passive

Indefinite (Simple)

to write

to be written

Continuous

to be writing




Perfect

to have written

to have been written

Perfect Continuous

to have been writing







What do these forms mean? Study the examples of different forms of Infinitives.

Чему я рад?

Active


Indefinite (Simple)

I am glad to speak to you

Рад говорить с вами (всегда радуюсь, когда говорю)

Continuous

I am glad to be speaking to you

Рад, что сейчас разговариваю с вами

Perfect

I am glad to have spoken to you

Рад, что поговорил с вами

Perfect Continuous

I am glad to have been speaking to you

Рад, что уже давно (все это время) разговариваю

Passive


Indefinite (Simple)

I am (always) glad to be told the news

Всегда рад, когда мне рассказывают новости

Perfect

I am glad to have been told the news

Рад, что мне рассказали


Ex. 1.1 Put the infinitives in brackets into the correct form.

1. He seems (to read) a lot. 2. He seems (to read) now. 3. He seems (to read) since morning. 4. He seems (to read) all the books in the library. 5. We expect (to be) back in two days. 6. He expected (to help) by the teacher. 7. The children seem (to play) since morning. 8. I am glad (to do) all the homework yesterday. 9. She seems (to work) at this problem ever since she came here. 10. I am sorry (to break) your pen. 11. I want (to take) you to the concert. 12. I want (to take) to the concert by my father. 13. She hoped (to help) her friends. 14. She hoped (to help) by her friends. 15. I hope (to see) you soon.
Ex. 1.2 Translate into English paying attention to Active Infinitive and Passive Infinitive, state the functions of the Infinitive.

1. To play chess was his greatest pleasure. 2. The child did not like to be washed. 3. Isn't it natural that we like to be praised and don't like to be scolded? 4. Which is more pleasant: to give or to be given presents? 5. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet 6. To improve your phonetics you should record yourself and analyse your speech. 7. This is the book to be read during the summer holidays. 8. To be instructed by such a good specialist was a great advantage. 9. He is very forgetful, but he doesn't like to be reminded of his duties.
Ex. 1.3 Translate into English paying attention to the Perfect Infinitive.

1. The child was happy to have been brought home. 2. Jane remembered to have been told a lot about Mr. Rochester. 3. The children were delighted to have been brought to the circus. 4. I am sorry to have spoilt your mood. 5. Maggie was very sorry to have forgotten, to feed the rabbits. 6. I am awfully glad to have met you. 7. Sorry to have placed you in this disagreeable situation. 8. I am very happy to have had the pleasure of making your acquaintance. 9. I am sorry to have kept you waiting. 10. Clyde was awfully glad to have renewed his acquaintance with Sondra. 11. Sorry not to have noticed you. 12.I am sorry to have added some more trouble by what I have told you. 13. When Clyde looked at the girl closely, he remembered to have seen her in Sondra's company. 14. I remembered to have been moved by the scene I witnessed.
Ex. 1.4 Replace parts of the sentences with infinitive according to the model.

E.g. He is sorry that he has said it. – He is sorry to have said it.

1. It is certain that it will rain if you don't take your umbrella. 2. Don't promise that you will do it, if you are not sure that you can. 3. He was happy that he was praised by everybody. 4. He was very proud that he had helped his elder brother. 5. She was sorry that she had missed the beginning of the concert. 6. I am glad that I see all my friends here. 7. I was afraid of going past that place alone. 8. My sister will be thrilled when she is wearing a dress as lovely as that. 9. We must wait till we hear the examination results. 10. She is happy that she has found such a nice place to live in. 11. I should be delighted if I could join you. 12. He hopes that he will know everything by tomorrow.
Ex. 1.5 Replace parts of the sentences with infinitive according to the model.

E.g. The boy had many toys which he could play with. – The boy had many toys to play with.

1. Here is something which will warm you up. 2. Here is a new brush which yon will clean your teeth with. 3. Here are some more facts which will prove that your theory is correct. 4. Here is something which you can rub on your hands. It will soften them. 5. Here are some screws with which you can fasten the shelves to the wall. 6. Here are some tablets which will relieve your headache. 7. Here are some articles which must be translated for tomorrow. 8. Who has a pen or a pencil to spare? I need something I could write with. 9. I have brought you a book which you can read now, but be sure and return it by Saturday. 10. Soon we found that there was another complicated problem that we were to consider. 11. The girl was quite young when both her parents died and she remained alone with two younger brothers whom she had to take care of. 12. I have no books which I can read. 13. Is there anybody who will help you with your spelling? 14. Don't forget that she has a baby which she must take care of. 15. Have you got anything that you want to say on this subject? 16. There was nothing that he could do except going home. 17. I have only a few minutes in which I can explain these words to you. 18. I have an examination which I must take soon, so I can't go to the theatre with you. 19. King Lear decided to have a hundred knights who would serve him after he had divided up his kingdom.
Ex. 1.6 Replace parts of the sentences with infinitive according to the model.

E.g. He is so old that he cannot skate. – He is too old to skate.

1. She has got so fat that she cannot wear this dress now. 2. The accident was so terrible that I don't want to talk about it. 3. They were so empty-headed that they could not learn a single thing. 4. The window was so dirty that they could not see through it. 5. She was so foolish that she could not understand my explanation. 6. I have very little wool: it won't make a sweater. 7. The problem is so difficult that it is impossible to solve it. 8. The box is so heavy that nobody can carry it. 9. The baby is so little that it cannot walk. 10. He is so weak that he cannot lift this weight. 11. She is so busy that she cannot talk with you. 12. She was so inattentive that she did not notice the mistake. 13. The rule was so difficult that they did not understand it. 14. He was so stupid that he did not see the joke.
Ex. 1.7 Replace parts of the sentences with infinitive according to the model

1. Я рад, что рассказал вам эту историю. 2. Я рад, что мне рассказали эту историю. 3. Я хочу познакомить вас с этой артисткой. 4. Я хочу, чтобы меня познакомили с этой артисткой. 5. Я рад, что встретил ее на станции. 6. Я рад, что меня встретили на станции. 7. Мы очень счастливы, что пригласили его на вечер. 8. Мы очень счастливы, что нас пригласили на вечер. 9. Он будет счастлив посетить эту знаменитую картинную галерею. 10. Он был счастлив, что посетил эту знаменитую картинную галерею. 11. Дети любят, когда им рассказывают сказки. 12. Я не предполагал останавливаться на этой станции. 13. Я не ожидал, что меня остановят. 14. Я сожалею, что причинил вам столько беспокойства. 15. Он не выносит, когда ему лгут. 16. Я вспомнил, что уже встречал это слово в какой-то книге. 17. Мне очень жаль, что я пропустил эту интересную лекцию. 18. Она счастлива, что слышала концерт известного итальянского дирижера. 19. Она рада, что присутствовала на лекции. 20. Он очень доволен, что закончил свою книгу. 21. Наши спортсмены гордятся тем, что выиграли кубок. 22. Я только хочу, чтобы мне позволили помочь вам. 23. Я был благодарен, что мне дали комнату с большим окном. 24. Он был счастлив, что вернулся домой.
Ex. 1.8 State the function of the infinitive. Translate into Russian.

1. It was impossible not to invite the Butlers for both afternoon and evening. (Dreiser). 2. To cut a long story short, the infant that's just gone out of the room is not your son. (Maugham). 3. The next thing to be done is to move away from this house. (Eliot). 4. Nobody asked you to come out here. I didn't ask you to stay. (Faulkner). 5. It was too hot, to go out into the town. (Hemingway). 6. He had been one of the first to become interested in the development of the street-car system. (Dreiser). 1. The floor of the forest was soft to walk on... (Hemingway). 8. He was a man to attract immediate sympathy. (Maugham). 9. After all, you're young enough to be my son. (Clark). 10. To begin with, he did not like the way his editor had spoken to him that morning. (Priestley). 11. To make the real decisions, one's got to have the real power. (Snow). 12. To know all is to forgive all. (Priestley). 13. Other people, men particularly, found it difficult to face Cowperwood's glazed stare! (Dreiser). 14. It must be awful to have a brilliant future behind you. (Snow). 15. He found the sky so pallid as to be almost invisible. (Baum). 16. His age was difficult to guess. (Wilson). 17. They were the last to come. (Maugham). 18. To lie is not my custom. Too much complication and uncomfort. (Baum).
Ex. 1.9 Translate into English using the infinitive.

1. Было приятно гулять в лесу в такой жаркий день. 2. Он достаточно хорошо знает английский язык, чтобы перевести эту статью. 3. Первое, что надо сделать, – это выписать новые слова из текста. 4. Никогда не поздно признать свою ошибку. 5. Я чувствую себя слишком плохо, чтобы поехать с вами за город. 6. Короче говоря, их вина осталась недоказанной. 7. Он первый прервал молчание. 8. Он ушел из лаборатории последним. 9. У нее есть ребенок, о котором ей надо заботиться. 10. Мне надо вам кое-что сказать. 11. У меня есть друзья, которые могут мне помочь. 12. У меня не было времени прочитать эту статью. 13. Вот статья, которую вы должны прочитать.
Objective Infinitive Construction (Complex Object) употребляется:

1. после глаголов, которые выражают желания, чувства:

to want, to like, to desire, to wish, to hate, should (would) like

2. после глаголов, выражающих предположение:

to expect, to suppose, to think, to consider, to believe, to find, to know.

e.g. We know him to be a kind man. – Мы знаем, что он добрый человек.

3. после глаголов, выражающих приказ, просьбу, разрешение, совет:

to order, to advise, to request, to recommend, to ask for, to allow

e.g. I asked for the telegram to be sent at once. – Я попросил, чтобы телеграмму отправили немедленно.

4. в таких конструкциях как:

to make somebody do something

to let somebody do something

и после глаголов, выражающих физическое восприятие: to see. to notice, to watch, to hear, to observe, to feel.

Инфинитив после этих глаголов употребляется без «to»:

e.g. I made them work. – Я заставил их работать

I noticed her enter the room. – Я заметил, как она зашла в комнату
Subjective Infinitive Construction (Complex Subject) употребляется:

1. когда сказуемое выражено глаголами, стоящими в Passive Voice:

to say, to hear, to expect, to state, to announce, to know, to suppose, to believe, to understand, to see, to think, to consider, to order, to ask, to allow

e.g. We were asked to wait in the office. – Нас попросили подождать в офисе.

They are supposed to come at seven. – Предполагают, что они приедут в семь.

2. когда сказуемое выражено следующими глаголами, стоящими в Active Voice:

to happen, to appear, to prove, to turn out, to seem

e.g. He seems to notice nothing unusual. – Кажется, он не замечает ничего странного.

They seem to have forgotten their promise. – Казалось, они забыли своё обещание.

  1. когда сказуемое выражено словосочетанием:

to be likely, to be certain, to be unlikely, to be sure

e.g. They are certain to come. – Они, бесспорно, придут.

He is likely to telephone. – Похоже, что он позвонит.
Ex. 2.1 Translate into Russian. Underline ObjectiveInfinitive Constructions.

1. I want you to listen to me and I expect you to understand me. 2. If you don't want anyone to know your business, keep your mouth shut. 3. What made you decide to enter that competition? 4. They wanted her to relax and sent the children to her aunt's. 5. Everybody knows him to be a responsible man. 6. Sunglasses always make you look mysterious. 7. The desire for success makes Martin work hard. It doesn't let him rest a minute. 8. Let me take you to the Milky Way on your holiday! 9. It takes two months to make a dream come true. 10. Don't let them fool you! 11. The boss expects you to finish the report by Monday. Would you like me to help you? 12.I don't let my children watch TV shows that are violent. Some of them will make your hair stand on end. 13. I saw you dance, and I'll never be the same again! 14. We saw Megan cross the street and enter the supermarket. 15. I have never heard anyone speak badly of him. 16. Angela felt her heart stop beating. 17. With great interest the detective watched people come in and go out of the house in the middle of the night.


Ex. 2.2 Transform the following sentences using Objective Infinitive Constructions.

Model: I expect that she will send me a letter.

I expect her to send me a letter.

1. I would like to see how he will say it to my face. 2. I expect that you will join our excursion. 3. We had not expected that she would reply, but she did. 4. We knew that he was a clever man. 5. I don't like that you repeat this nonsense. 6. I hate when people speak so cynically. 7. We expect that everybody will be ready by seven. 8. They showed themselves even more narrow-minded than we had expected they would be. 9. I felt that somebody touched me lightly on the shoulder. 10. He heard that someone called his name. 11. We did not expect that he would return so soon. 12. I saw that the telegraph boy handed the cable to the man. 13. They heard how the woman uttered a little exclamation. 14. He hated when people argued about trifles.
Ex. 2.3 Translate into Russian. Underline Subjective Infinitive Constructions.

1. She is said to be a very kind woman. 2. He is considered to have finished his scientific research. 3. What are they supposed to be doing? 4. Children were supposed to have stayed in the country-house. 5. She is believed to have been instructed about everything. 6. The new invention is considered to be applied in some days. 7. They aren't supposed to take part in this conference. 8. The young specialist proved to be a good doctor. 9. My mother seems to be cooking a new kind of soup. 10. She appeared to have been ill for two days. 11. They didn't seem to be rich. 12. The front gate didn't happen to be open. 13. The old woman seems to be in a good health. 14. She is likely to get upset if you ask about it. 15. Their work is certain to take a long time. 16. Jane is not sure to obtain information from the article. 17. This question is certain to be discussed. 18. The results of your examination are likely to be known in a day. 19. We were not likely to finish our research before the end of the month.

Ex. 2.4 Transform the following sentences using Subjective Infinitive Constructions.

Model: We heard that a car stopped outside the door. – A car was heard to stop outside the door.

It is believed that the poem was written by Byron. – The poem is believed to have been written by Byron.

1. People consider the climate there to be very healthful. 2. It was announced that the Chinese dancers were arriving next week. 3. It is expected that the performance will be a success. 4. It is said that the book is popular with both old and young. 5. It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown soldier. 6. It is supposed that the playwright is working at a new comedy. 7. It is reported that the flood has caused much damage to the crops. 8. It was supposed that the crops would be rich that year. 9. It has been found that this mineral water is very good for the liver. 10. Scientists consider that electricity exists throughout space. 11. It is said that the weather in Europe was exceedingly hot last summer. 12. It was reported that five ships were missing after the battle.
Ex. 2.5 Translate into Russian. Underline Subjective and Objective Infinitive Constructions.

1. We expect everybody to join us and to have fun. 2. You can't make me do such things. 3. His parents were not expected to come so early. 4. We heard the postman come up to the front door and then we saw him slip a thick envelope into the box. 5. My work is considered to be finished in some hours. 6. My friends are believed to be on their way to my place. 7. Do you know the ship is reported to call in the port tomorrow? 8. The neighbour saw a stranger enter the house through the back door. 9. We don't want anyone to interfere. 10. He noticed her suddenly turn pale. 11. Isn't he considered to be one of the best surgeons? 12. These plants are known to grow in subtropics. 13. She was heard to have left for France. 14. Tracey had never expected Alan to betray her. 15. The documents are reported to have been received. 16. I think this painting to be a masterpiece. 17. Let him rest till he feels better. 18. They are said to have been travelling for a long time. 19. These reforms are thought to be difficult to carry out. 20. We suppose her to be in her late fifties.
Ex. 2.6 Transform the sentences according to the model.

Model: They saw him do it. – He was seento do it.

1. Everybody heard her say that. 2. The neighbours noticed the burglar get into the house. 3.The detective saw the fellow leave the bar. 4. The teacher made the pupil tell the truth. 5. Tom's parents allowed him to keep a dog. 6. People expect the performance to be a success. 7. Nobody ever heard him tell a lie. 8. We know her to be a real professional. 9. We consider the situation hopeless. 10. Many people heard him promise a lot. 11.Somebody noticed her enter the night club. 12. They let him choose his way of life.
Ex. 2.7 Translate into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive Constructions.

1. She felt her hands tremble. 2. Nobody noticed him come in and sit down. 3. Many books are known to be published in our country every year. 4. His invention is considered to be of great importance. 5. She is not likely to change her opinion. 6. The new rocket is reported to go into operation next year. 7. Clyde seemed to have been thinking of no one else but Sondra since their last meeting. 8. I don't want my papers to be looked through. 9. I felt Nick put his hand on my shoulder 10. We saw them jump with parachutes. 11. The sun is known to represent a mass of compressed gases. 12. I heard the door of the entrance hall open and close softly. 13. For a long time the atom was thought to be indivisible. 14. He was said to be one of the most promising nuclear physicists. 15. Clyde was expected to arrive at the weekend. 16. She heard somebody walk up to her door. 17. Money just doesn't happen to interest me. 18. I heard him tell the teacher about it. 19. She appeared to be an excellent actress. 20. You appear to have found in him something that I have missed. 21. This work seems to take much time. 22. His office turned out to be in one of the back streets. 23. He is sure to tell me all about this even if I don't ask him. 24. They are sure to acknowledge your talent. 25. They all gathered on the hill to watch the sun rise. 26. This new course of treatment is sure to help your grandmother. 27. Would you like your luggage to be carried upstairs.
Ex. 2.8 Put the infinitives in brackets into the correct form. Translate the sentences.

1. They seemed (to quarrel): I could hear angry voices from behind the door. 2. They are supposed (to work) at the problem for the last two months. 3. The only sound (to hear) was the snoring оf grandfather in the bedroom. 4. Her ring was believed (to lose) until she happened (to find) it during the general cleaning. It turned out (to drop) between the sofa and the wall. 5. They seemed (to wait) for ages. 6. I hate (to bother) you, but the students are still waiting (to give) books for their work. 7. He seized every opportunity (to appear) in public: he was so anxious (to talk) about. 8. Is there anything else (to tell) her? I believe she deserves (to know) the state of her sick brother. 9. He began writing books not because he wanted (to earn) a living. He wanted (to read) and not (to forget). 10. I consider myself lucky (to be) to that famous exhibition and (to see) so many wonderful paintings. 11. He seems (to know) French very well: he is said (to spend) his youth in Paris. 12. The enemy army was reported (to overthrow) the defence lines and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city. 13. The woman pretended (to read) and (not to hear) the bell. 14. You seem (to look) for trouble. 15. It seemed (to snow) heavily since early morning: the ground was covered with a deep layer of snow.
Ex. 2.9 Translate the sentences into English using Objective Infinitive Constructions.

1. Я хочу, чтобы все это прочитали. 2. Мне хотелось бы, чтобы доктор посмотрел его. 3. Я не заметил, как он положил письмо на стол. 4. Я почувствовал, как он коснулся моей руки. 5. Вам бы хотелось, чтобы я рассказал вам эту историю? 6. Мы видели, как она переплыла реку. 7. Я знаю, что твоя сестра – очень способная студентка. 8. Я не ожидал, что это случится так скоро. 9. Мы рассчитываем, что вы нам поможете. 10. Я рассчитываю, что письмо придёт завтра. 11. Яне ожидал, что он напишет такие прекрасные стихи. 12. Я ненавижу, когда ты забываешь свои обязанности. 13. Бабушка любит, когда Лена играет на рояле. 14. Он терпеть не мог, когда мы ломали игрушки. 15. Она не любит, когда я с ней спорю. 16. Он терпеть не может, когда я опаздываю. 17. Пожалуйста, не заставляйте меня пить молоко. 18. Собака заставила кошку взобраться на дерево. 19. Учитель заставил её переписать упражнение. 20. Дождь заставил нас вернуться домой. 21. Я хочу, чтобы эту статью напечатали в завтрашней газете. 22. Вы хотите, чтобы эту картину повесили над камином?
Ex. 2.10 Translate the sentences into English using Subjective Infinitive Constructions.

I. Вы, кажется, устали. 2. Условия работы оказались более трудными, чем предполагалось. 3. Вы случайно не знаете этого человека? 4. Новые автобусы оказались очень удобными. 5. Из трех сестер Бронте Шарлотта считалась наиболее талантливой. 6. Как известно, английская писательница Войнич жила в течение нескольких лет в Петербурге и изучала русскую литературу. 7. Ваш приятель, кажется, очень интересуется древней историей. 8. Известно, что римляне построили на Британских островах хорошие дороги. 9. Вальтер Скотт считается создателем исторического романа. 10. Сообщают, что экспедиция достигла места назначения. 11. Яслучайно знаю номер его телефона. 12. Он оказался хорошим спортсменом. 13. Я случайно встретил его в Москве. 14. Говорят, что здание было построено в 17 веке. 15. Предполагают, что заседание закончится в десять часов. 16. Рочестер случайно встретил Джейн по дороге домой. 17. Говорят, что он работает над своим изобретением уже несколько лет. 18. Говорят, что эта статья переведена на все языки мира. 19. Вы, кажется, много читали до поступления в университет. 20. Возможно, что их забрали именно в эту больницу. 21. Видели, как он зашёл в свой кабинет. 22. Считают, что его коллекцию картин продали по низкой цене.
Ex. 2.11 Translate the sentences into English using Subjective and Objective Infinitive Constructions.

1. Никто не хотел, чтобы они пришли сюда в такое позднее время. 2. Ты любишь, когда твоя бабушка приезжает к тебе? 3. Ученики не считают это задание трудным. 4.Оказалось, что мы уже когда-то встречались. 5. Полагают, что эта поэма была написана в 8 веке. 6. Он, кажется, пишет новую статью сейчас. 7. Мы ожидали, что вам помогут. 8. Ничто не сможет заставить нас изменить наши планы. 9. Я не почувствовал, как кто-то украл мой кошелек. 10. Книга, которую вы мне дали, оказалась очень скучной. 11. Говорят, что его исследования известны во всем мире. 12. Думали, что встреча состоится в мае. 13. Никто не видел, как он упал и сломал руку. 14. Она не хотела, чтобы её ребёнка отвозили в больницу. 15. Известно, что это здание разрушили во время войны. 16. Это растение долго считали ядовитым. 17. Я не хочу, чтобы мои бумаги просматривали. 18. Известно, что эта экспедиция проводит раскопки уже долгое время. 19. Полиция не думает, что он совершил преступление. 20. Похоже, что он автор этого письма. 21. Безусловно, родители уже ждут меня. 22. Возможно, он уже вернулся с прогулки. 23. Я не могу заставить вас верить моим обещаниям. 24. Кто хочет, чтобы его обманывали?. 25. Мы бы хотели, чтобы эти бумаги подписали до нашего отъезда. 26. Я заметила, как он передал тебе записку.


Ex. 3.1 Underline the for-to-Infinitive Construction. Translate into Russian.

1. There was no home for him to go to. (I. Shaw) 2. He waited for me to sit down. (Hemingway) 3. It seemed almost a shame for anyone to be as pretty as she was tonight. (Snow) 4. And it is not for you to make terms. It is for you to accept them. (Wilde) 5. There's nothing for us to do but amuse ourselves. (Maugham) 6. He cordially extended one forefinger for Erik to shake. 7. Some trouble with the authorities had made it necessary for him to be much abroad. (Maughtam) 8. There were plenty of papers for him to read, but he left them alone. (Priestley) 9. It is impossible for me to write about that time in detail – I can't bear it. (Hansford Johnson) 10. He opened the door of his room for her to go out. (Murdoch) 11. Buttonwood Street, where he spent the first ten years of his life, was a lovely place for a boy to live. (Dreiser) 12. It was really warm for May, and still light enough for him to see his cows in the meadow beyond the river. (Galsworthy) 13. My house is always ready for anyone to come into. 14. My dear, this isn't the time for us to quarrel. (Hansford Johnson) 15. Erik saw that she was impatient for him to be gone. (Wilson) 16. He waited for Bert to say something.
Ex. 3.2 Translate into English, using the for-to-Infinitive Construction where possible.

1. Первое, что мы должны сделать – это заказать билеты. 2. Вопрос был слишком неожиданным, чтобы я мог на него ответить. 3. Я подчеркнула эти предложения, чтобы вы проанализировали их. 4. Он попросил принести бумагу и перо. 5. Этот текст достаточно легкий, чтобы вы могли прочитать его без словаря. 6. Мне очень хочется, чтобы вы поступили в университет. 7. Ему ничего не оставалось делать, как немедленно выехать в Москву. 8. Было бы неразумно, если бы он сейчас уехал из Ленинграда. 9. Самое лучшее, что вы можете сделать, – это поехать в санаторий. 10. Каждый вечер мистер Пеготти ставил свечу на подоконник, чтобы маленькая Эмили знала, что он ее ждет. 11. Давид купил поваренную книгу (cookery book), чтобы Дора пользовалась ею. 12. Дора сказала, что первое, что она должна сделать, – это дать Джипу хороший ужин. 13. Мисс Бетси и Давид сели завтракать, с нетерпением ожидая, когда придёт мистер Микобер. 14. Мистер Микобер попросил, чтобы принесли бумаги и конторские книги.
The Participle

1. Forms and Functions of Participles.

2.
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