Русский язык и литература
Казахский язык и лит
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Grammar exercises (общая) дораб. Of the Verb Tenses in Active and Passive Voice
Ex. 2.2 Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones using the Objective Participial Construction.
Model 1: I saw them as they were working in the field. – I saw them working in the field.
1. I saw him as he was picking flowers in the park. 2. We watched them as they were playing hockey. 3. The teacher observed the pupils as they were writing compositions. 4. I saw the girl as she was crossing the street. 5. She watched him as he was repairing his car. 6. We saw wild geese as they were flying to the South.
Model 2: The hairdresser did her hair. – She had her hair done.
1. The tailor made a suit for him. 2. The worker repaired his car. 3. The photographer took a photograph of him. 4. The typist typed his article for him. 5. The waitress brought them dinner. 6. His wife washed and ironed his shirt. 7. Their daughter cooked supper for them. 8. The porter brought his luggage into the car.
Ex. 2.3 Point out the Objective and Subjective Participial Constructions. Translate into Russian.
1. She heard the musicians playing in the parlour. 2. The taxi could be seen waiting outside. 3. His face clouded when he heard his name spoken. 4. She had the drawing-room redecorated 5. All the while she felt her heart beating with a vague fear. 6. The darkness found him occupied with these thoughts. 7. The darkness found Mr. and Mrs. Plornish knocking at his door. 8. Somewhere a long way off a telephone bell rang and a voice could be heard speaking. 9. For their New Year's Eve party she had all the furniture moved out of the parlour and sitting-room. 10. Get your things packed. 11. Timothy heard the woman crying at the wall. 12. The two men were heard descending. 13. Two days later she heard sleigh bells coming up the drive. 14. They wanted the Committee convened over the week-end. 15. She had her bed moved to the corner of the porch. 16. She averted her eyes each time she found herself being stared at. 17. The din in the entrance hall continued, and more vehicles could be heard arriving at the door.
Ex. 2.4 Translate into English using the Objective Participial Construction.
1. Мы наблюдали, как дети играют в футбол. 2. Я видела, как дети пили чай. 3. Они слышали, как ее отец разговаривал на немецком языке. 4. Мы видели, как он садился в трамвай. 5. Я видел, как лодка приближалась к берегу. 6. Мы заметили, как она смеялась.
7. Ученики видели, как приземлялся самолет. 8. Мне отремонтировали радиоприемник. 9. Ей сделали прическу. 10. Тебе починили ботинки? 11. Нам купили билеты на концерт.
Ex. 2.5 Translate into English paying Attention to the Absolute Participial Construction.
1. There being no chance of escape, the thief was arrested on the spot. 2. The bridge having been swept away by the flood, the train was late. 3. There being little time left, they hired a cab to get to the theatre in time. 4. The hour being late, she hastened home. 5. The weather having changed, we decided to stay where we were. 6. The next morning, it being Sunday, they all went to church. 7. For the moment the shop was empty, the mechanic having disappeared into a room at the back. 8. The wind being favourable, our yacht will reach the island in no lime. 9. It having been decided that they should not go out on account of the weather, the members of the party were busy writing their notes. 10. The treaty having been signed, trade was at once resumed. 11. Dinner being over, we assembled in the drawing room. 12. This being understood, the conference was over. 13. This done, and Sikes having satisfied his appetite, the two men lay down on chairs for a short nap. 14. She sat staring into the fire, the glove forgotten on her knee. 15. They continued their way, the boy sobbing quietly, the man ashamed. 16. He lifted the lid and kept it in his hand while she was drinking, both standing. 17. She danced light as a feather, eyes shining, feet flying, her body bent a little forward. 18. He was standing there silent, a bitter smile curling his lips. 19. Jack sat silent, his long legs stretched out. 20. The speaker faced the audience, his hand raised for silence. 21. She hurried along, her heels crunching in the packed snow. 22. She was standing on the rock ready to dive, with the green water below inviting her. 23. The girl wandered away, with tears rolling down her cheeks. 24. She sat on the steps, with her arms crossed upon her knees.
Ex. 2.6 Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones using theAbsolute Participial Construction.
1. As our work was finished, we went home. 2. If the letter is posted today, the news will reach them tomorrow. 3. If mother permits us, we will go to the theatre. 4. When the packing had been done, the girls left for the station. 5. As the stop was a long one, the girls got off the train. 6. As the weather was perfect, Lydia played tennis every day. 7. If time permits, we will come a few days earlier. 8. When the third bell had gone, the curtain slowly rose. 9. They stood there; the night wind was shaking the drying whispering leaves. 10. As the situation was urgent, we had to go ahead. 11. The town of Crewe is known to be one of the busiest junctions in England: many railway lines pass through it. 12. We set off; the rain was still coming down heavily. 13. Dinner was served on the terrace, as it was very close in the room. 14. There was in fact nothing to wait for, and we got down to work. 15. The question was rather difficult to answer at once, and I asked for permission to think it over. 16. He stood leaning against the wall, his arms were folded. 17. There was very little time left, we had to hurry. 18. The new engines were safely delivered, all of them were in good order. 19. Our efforts to start the car had failed, and we spent the night in a nearby village.
Ex. 2.7 Translate into English using Absolute Participial Construction.
1. Так как оставалось еще полчаса до отхода поезда, мы решили поужинать на вокзале. 2. Если погода будет благоприятной, спортсмены могут показать хорошие результаты. 3. Мы долго разговаривали: он задавал мне вопросы, а я охотно на них отвечал. 4. Если условия позволят, я приеду к вам на лето. 5. Так как было очень тепло, дети спали на открытом воздухе. 6. Когда все приготовления были закончены, мы отправились в поход. 7. Корабль медленно плыл вдоль берегов Белого моря; сотни птиц кружились над ним. 8. Было очень темно, так как на небе не было ни одной звездочки. 9. Когда солнце село, туристы развели костер. 10. Так как было очень поздно, собрание было закрыто. 11. Если погода позволит, мы пойдем на каток. 12. Так как все было готово, она решила отдохнуть. 13. Так как было уже поздно, они никуда не пошли. 14. Так как погода была холодная, Джек спрятал руки в карманы. 15. Так как быстро темнело, она поспешила домой. 16. Когда солнце зашло, сразу стало темно. 17. Так как наш разговор был закончен, я пошел домой. 18. Когда письмо было написано, она быстро побежала на почту отправить его.
Ex. 2.8 Find Participial Constructions and state their function in the sentence. Translate the sentences.
1. She opened the door and heard their voices speaking. 2. She watched him walking through the sunlight until he was gone. 3. Antony saw his younger brother coming. 4. She had seen him reading it over. 5. I saw the mild eye of the good old doctor turned upon me for a moment. 6. That done, he felt almost obliged to leave the room. 7. And so often he overheard them discussing so interesting things. 8. Her heart beating, Mary hurried home. 9. I saw him going downstairs early in the morning. 10. He saw her sitting in bed, her golden hair floating behind her. 11. I'd like to talk to him about us spending some time, oh, only a week or so, in the Blue Mountains. 12. She found the old man and his granddaughter sitting at breakfast.
1. The Forms and the Functions of the Gerund.
2. Gerundial Constructions.
The Forms of the Gerund
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having been written
How to Translate Different Forms of the Gerund
He likes telling fairy tales.
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He likes being told fairy tales.
чтобы ему рассказывали
He is proud of having spoken to this outstanding person
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He is proud of having been spoken to.
что с ним поговорили
Ex. 1.1 Translate into Russian. State the function of the gerund.
1. Repairing cars is his business. 2. It goes without saying. 3. Living in little stuffy rooms means breathing poisonous air. 4. Iron is found by digging in the earth. 5. There are two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from sugarcane. 6. Jane Eyre was fond of reading. 7. Miss Trotwood was in the habit of asking Mr. Dick his opinion. 8. Have you finished writing? 9. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very useful. 10. I like skiing, but my sister prefers skating. 11. She likes sitting in the sun. 12. It looks like raining. 13. My watch wants repairing. 14. Thank you for coming. 15. I had no hope of getting an answer before the end of the month. 16. I had the pleasure of dancing with her the whole evening. 17. Let's go boating. 18. He talked without stopping. 19. Some people can walk all day without feeling tired.
Ex. 1.2 Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones using the gerund with a preposition "of ".
E.g. She thought she would go to the country for the weekend.
She thought of going to the country for the weekend.
1. I thought I would come and see you tomorrow. 2. I am thinking that I will go out to the country tomorrow to see my mother. 3. What do you think you will do tomorrow? – I don't know now; I thought I would go to the zoo, but the weather is so bad that probably I won't go. 4. I hear there are some English books at our institute bookstall now. – So you are thinking that you will buy some, aren't you? 5.I thought I would work in the library this evening, but as you have come, I won't go to the library.
Ex. 1.3 Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones using the gerund with a preposition "after".
E.g. When she had bought everything she needed, she went home.
After buying everything she needed, she went home.
1. After she took the child to the kindergarten, she went to the library to study for her examination. 2. When he had made a thorough study of the subject, he found that it was a great deal more important than he had thought at first. 3. After I had hesitated some minutes whether to buy the hat or not, I finally decided that I might find one I liked better in another shop. 4. When she had graduated from the university, she left St. Petersburg and went to teach in her hometown. 5. When he had proved that his theory was correct, he started studying ways and means of improving the conditions of work in very deep coalmines.
Remember some verbs and phrases after which we use the gerund:
to burst out
to go on
to give up
to put off
to be worth
to keep (on)